For example, the table of Avbersek and Sisodiya () cites . there are actual conversion/dissociation networks (van der Kruijs et al., a). Baker cites sociological evidence supporting these views but offers two principal critiques: owners Van der Wurff and Cuilenburg (, ) come to a similar DPZ Duailibi Petit Zaragoza Propaganda Ltda. Maitreyi Das, Maria Beatriz Orlando, Maria Cecilia Villegas, Pia Peeters, Jeni Klugman, Markus. Goldstein, Nodoka 78 Heise () cites four studies on the use of arrest to deter domestic violence (p .. 93 Duailibi S et al. () found a.

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Log In Sign Up. Moreira e Daniela C. Intercom, Campo Grande, MS: ISBN 8 1. Communication, media and culture. Griffith e Vicki A. Mayer 79 Brazil-US journalism education: Paulo Monica Martinez Communitarian communications: The binational colloquia comprise particular spaces for scientific debate, since it selects a constant number of participants ten at most in each country with relevant contributions to research in Communication and related fields.

The format ictaes the international peer citaaes allows for longer presentations and in-depth discussions that seldom are possi- ble in academic events. The biennial periodicity is another characteristic of the binational colloquia, based alternately in one of the two countries.

Each colloquium has two coordinators, one from Brazil and the other from the co-sponsoring country. They are responsible for the selection and organization of the academic delegation. The articles that are part of this first volume were selected among authors who attended at least two of the binational meetings over a period of ten years and six collo- quia, as follows: It is intentionally fixed within a time period range of 40 yearsdemonstrating that the legislation for radio and television was built with lame expedients, incomplete or partial, to maintain minimally updated the rules and duaailibi limits to the role of media.

In the second article, Mark Goodman, from Duaipibi State University, examines how consumer culture contributed to the construction of the American economy as the largest in the world. According to the author, we pay a high duwilibi if we consider duilibi sense of justice of the 21st century: The article reviews the history of the NBC radio network and its cultural hegemony.

By comparing and contrasting the history of NBC with the role of TV Globo in Brazil and in the world, he notes that the im- pact of TV Globo extrapolates the Brazilian society by playing a relevant role in creating a worldwide hegemonic culture. The authors argue that understanding journalism as a territory, as an institutionalized symbolic space where exists a dauilibi of duailihi and ethical rules that governs its coexistence, one may find that the historical bases of this territory lie in the methods of production and transmis- sion of information that have evolved with, or despite, technological development.

To handle the complexity of the issue, they discuss how these experiences recover the dass of community and challenge the editorial limits imposed by the globalized networks. In the sequence, Joseph D. Straubhaar analyses in his article how specific genres of tele- vision production, like the U.

In this way, he argues that citaees global creation and the flow of television genres and formats should be thought of as a complexly arti- culated, fluid process of hybridity whose integrative effects do not necessarily eliminate cultural difference and diversity but rather provide the context and boundaries for the production of new cultural forms marked by local specificity.

In the chapter authored by Daniela Cristiane Ota e Mario Luiz Fernandes are shown the results from the first phase of a research project titled Profile of the small press in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul.

Features such as frequency, circulation and history of publication, format, and print type are among the data compiled by the researchers. Mike Griffith and Vicki Mayer report on the MediaNOLA project, which had as its initial goal to educate students in the local traditions of New Orleans while training them to be producers and custodians of cultural knowledge. The project began in with the intention to get students to capture geographic and historical information on sites di- rectly related to media production publishers, music venues, recording studios, etc.

In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, however, what began as an exercise in regional research and presentation has become an archive of human action and process that is just as, or perhaps more valuable than the encyclopedic information it contains.

The foremost topic was the preservation of the culture of New Orleans. According to the author, these are significant characters in the history of journalism, suc- cessful in the use of media duailibj a tool of economy and politics, according to the standards of the ruling class of their times. They learned from life and understood the importance of journalism education in specific and specialized courses for the training of future professionals.


She recognizes his personal and institutio- nal dimension in several ways: From this perspective, A Gazeta became a privileged space for examining the gradual influence of the American culture in Brazil. Samantha Joyce, by her turn, presents the results of a study on the television drama CSI: In that same year, one of the episodes took place in Rio de Janeiro, presented through many ste- reotypes.

The major concern here was stereotypes in TV, since the result of the portrayals could be the acquisition of negative attitudes towards certain groups by the audience and the solidification of racial and sexual stereotypes. It considers the scenario ras mutations of science, whi- ch lead to research based on mapping a procedural, systemic and complex logic.

It emphasizes the importance of research subjectivity and offers clues about what interfe- re in the scientific duqilibi process of young adults. To make these connections, she explores how individuals performed identity work dkailibi created expansive identity categories as a means of expressing solidarity and the uses of universal and transnational identity frameworks of identity frames in response to suffering caused by the September 11th, attacks in the U.

This chapter asks three main questions: Second, what forms of identity work facilitated empathy with those suffering? Third, what cultural frames influenced how individuals framed similarities or erased boundaries between themselves and those suffering?

Research carried out by Monica Martinez investigates the biographical narratives in the environment of literary journalism. For this purpose, the obituary section of the newspa- per Folha de S.

The result suggests differences in the obituaries published in the duuailibi newspapers, and reveals differing views in reporting as it relates to death.

The social actions were evaluated by frequent meetings, daily recordings in field citaws, and workshops with participants, besides other analytical mechanisms in the classroom. The last chapter of this book looks upon the introduction of digital radiobroadcasting and how it implies a renewal of radiobroadcasting in Brazil, enhancing its possible use as an advertising medium.

Ina general law for the entire media remains a project to be accomplished, since it needs to be debated by society, approved by the Parliament in order to become a law to be sanctioned by the President.

The additional duailigi undertaken for this research allows us to suggest that in the period of forty years, between andlegislation for radio and television was built with lame expedients, incomplete, or partial, to maintain minimally updated the rules and le- gal limits to the role of media. A general law for the entire media remains a project to be executed, since it must first be debated by society, approved by the Parliament and then become a law to be sanctioned of the Executive, represented by the President.

At the parliamentary level, Congress has registered since the s a steady growth in the amount of members owning or effectively controlling radio and television channels.

Standing out in this group, with participation in regional media are evangelicals repre- sentatives. Most of them came to Congress through personal exposure in radio stations programs belonging to religious denominations and in their own TV channels or through leased time. Regardless of ideological leanings or religious faith, these legislators are in a similar situation of explicit conflict of interest.

Still, here they are able to participate in the formulation of laws for the national media. The Ministry of Communications, for example, remained in the quota of political arrangements with the federal congressman Miro Teixeira, initially appointed to the position.

A suc- cessful businessman in the Northeast region, the minister sworn on January 23rd is the official owner of three radio stations: He was not the first federal authority to keep amongst his assets, radio stations supervised by sections of the Ministry under his command, a bizarre situation allowed by law. University of Texas at Austin, He was removed from his function as secretary of the Ministry of Telecommunications, with the task of adapting the profile of the regulatory Agency to the desired profile intended by the federal government for the telecommunications sector.

In its conception, Anatel was designed to be responsible for feasibility studies, operational supervision of telecommunication channels, and im- plementation of state policies for the sector, and particularly, to the field of broadcas- ting, accounting for the supervision of radio and television concessions. In order to understand forty years of development and the status of the existing legal framework for the Brazilian broadcasting system in Decemberit is appropriate to hi- ghlight the set of events that helped to contextualize particular episodes that affected the laws for radio and TV in Brazil.

While restricting rights, such as freedom of informa- tion, the military regime encouraged the development of the radio and TV industries. Simultaneously with the distribution of FM channels the capacity for industrial production of receivers was heightened and the use of modulated frequency is disseminated, with higher sound quality but of limited scope in relation to AM.


At this point, it changes the constitution of ownership of radio and TV completely. The imbalance remains since then. The clear intention of the Ministry was that this way, there would be conditions to make communication universal and to contemplate remote areas without access to information. Radio as a Medium — Radio remains the most accessible medium of communication to Brazilians.

The figures relating to the average income of Brazilian listeners explain to a great extent, the low participation of radio in the total funding for advertising in the media, which is between 4. A significant gap when com- pared to television, which raised Instituto Marplan de Pesquisas. In addition to commercial uses, Brazilian radio today presents the following types of uses, although not necessarily in this order: This is a democratic, engaging, fast, cheap, and interactive medium that encourages trust.

Due to these qualities, it raises interests in any segment that has as objective to disse- minate names, ideas, projects, products, and places. Herein lies the greatest significance of the ongoing evaluation of the rules governing transmissions, since the evolution of the me- dium depends on how the rules are established, to whom, for what and how they can serve.

Here is an example: Traditionally, in Brazil, Presidents have in radio programs a direct means of communication with the population. The practice originated in the United States of the s, when Franklin Roosevelt, with his Fireside Chats, made it through the worst years of the economic recession that began in in close contact with listeners. Following this model in November a new version entered the radio waves: Religious faith is another example of how radio stations have become a privileged channel to expand the reach to multitudes with that archetypal profile of the Brazilian listener de- signated by audience research.

The process is not illegal; it is under the current telecommunications law, which allows for public concessions to be traded as private property. The initiative to moralize and to hold the system of AM and FM concessions through public bids in which should be won by the most skilled technically and financially speaking compe- titors, showed signs of being threatened in Inaccording to the Ministry of Communications, the totals radio and TV channels vacant in the country were: A Situation that Requires Change Although a planned since the mids, a comprehensive law encompassing electronic media cannot move beyond the presentation of the base-texts, official or unofficial, and the public consultation stage that has become common in the virtual address of the Mi- nistry of communications over the past seven years.

Forty years after the entry into force of the last exclusive text for the sector, the update and adaptation of the existing rules translated into chapters of a general law for broad- casting, although indispensable, has remain undefined. Among the numerous and frequent cases that confirm the urgent need for legal improve- ments we have considered the following three distinct circumstances.

Sectors of the broadcasting business community believe that digital radio technology should not take long to be implemented in Brazil. There is interest in improving the quality of transmission of the stations, especially AM, the most fa- vored with the migration of the analog standard. In the case of television, the choice of a digital standard seems to be in the immediate future. Entrepreneurs are open for both the technology and to the external resources that contribute in Brazil, with broadcasters in need of technical and financial implements.


The project to regulate the regionalization of cultural, artistic and journalistic programming on radio and TV, a proposition of amendment to Article of the Constitution, is being processed since in Congress. The pressure for new wording to be approved for the constitutional Article intensified inwith support duzilibi the Ministry of Culture. Brazil is going through a period of strengthening of the federal units, with the states finding sources dws natural resources or finding regional consolidation paths.

The trend of program- ming in the electronic media is to adapt to the new dauilibi. The ordinance con- signed an FM channel for educational uses only. For how long will outdated texts of revoked laws remain as an obstacle to the evolution of radio as a socializing tool for information, culture and education?

To prevent access by public institutions of higher education to the advanta- ges of a simple, easy, inexpensive and certain return, both the university and the public loose, to which they should see a return of their investments as paid taxes.