Purchase your copy of ASTM E – 02() as a PDF download or hard copy directly from the official BSI Shop. All BSI British Standards. Find the most up-to-date version of ASTM E at Engineering ASTM E – E – 02 The test methods provide for reporting of specic, distinctive informati.

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An additional button, “Duplex”, is found at the bottom of the control panel. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters.

The percent of the total intercept length represented by asttm intercept length in each class interval was then calculated by dividing each value in the seventh column by the total intercept length If duplex grain size is suspected in asrm product too large to be polished and etched as a single specimen, macroetching should be considered as a rst step in evaluation.

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If the calculations are error-free, the eighth column should total to Of these, the Comparison Procedure is the simplest, but offers the least precision. The use of these is described in detail in Methods E Accordingly, the layer depth of 1.

Selecting only part of the specimen surface may inadvertently eliminate areas that have high or low concentrations of one of the grain sizes, thus biasing the estimate. Four procedures for estimating area fraction are described, the simplest to apply resulting in the least precision, and the most complicated resulting in awtm greatest precision.

Count the number of grid points falling within the particular grain f1181 region being evaluated. If microscopic examination is subsequently necessary, individual specimens must be taken to allow estimation of area fractions for the entire product cross-section, awtm to allow determination of grain sizes representing the entire cross-section as well. Classication of the duplex grain size see 8. Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.


Use the lowest magnication that allows visual resolution of the coarse- and ne-grained areas as distinct regions. However, the test methods described here awtm area fraction estimation may be of use in describing duplex grain structures.

If there is any doubt whether a point falls inside or outside the outlined region, count the point as one half.

Duplex grain structures for example, multiphase alloys are not necessarily duplex in grain size, and as such are not the subject of these methods. For comparison of mechanical properties with metallurgical features, s1181 for specification purposes, it may be important to be able to characterize grain size in such materials.

Note that it is not necessary to resolve the individual ne grains in the image. Accordingly, the longitudinal orientation is recommended, with one exception. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to consult appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to its use.

Measures grain boundary intercept distances or individual grain areas. For the coarse grain size, the number of intercepts totaled 13, and the intercept length totaled Use Methods E to determine the average size of the balance of the grains in the specimen.

The data in this example were gathered from that photomicrograph, using the procedure of 8. If microscopic examination is subsequently necessary, individual specimens must be taken to allow estimation of area fractions for the entire product cross-section, and to allow determination of grain sizes representing the entire crosssection as well. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. The grid spacing should be matched to the image magnication to fulll the recommendations of Practice E If this is not practical, apply the estimation procedure to as much of the specimen as is reasonable, but recognize that, by not sampling all of the specimen area, some undened bias may be introduced into the estimate.

ASTM E1181 – 02(2015)

To characterize these patterns accurately, the entire cross-section of the specimen or product must be evaluated. Each photomicrograph is accompanied by the corresponding reporting format for that type of duplex grain size.


Arbitrary Division 1 2 1 1 1 1 Coarse Grain Size no. The layer depth of 3. A tube whose wall thickness is small compared to its outside diameter may be treated as equivalent to a product of rectangular cross-section, in that a surface layer of a given depth at 5 the outside diameter covers essentially the same area as a layer of the same depth at the inside diameter.

Use this average and the overall product dimensions to calculate an estimated area fraction for that surface layer. A further example appears in Fig. Signicance and Use 5. These are available from microscope manufacturers. Further suppose that measurements indicate an average depth of that surface layer of 1.

The area fraction occupied by the ne grain was calculated as the total intercept length in the ne grain region That estimate can be made most accurately only on a transverse section. Etch specimens so that all grain boundaries are distinct and easily visible. Such outlining will simplify decisions during point counting, and thus speed the counting process.

E — 02 The test methods provide for reporting of specic, distinctive information for each type of duplex grain size.

ASTM E – 02 Standard Test Methods for Characterizing Duplex Grain Sizes

Use the “Duplex” button to start the programs designed to calculate duplex grain sizes. E11181 software provides fast and accurate detection of grain boundaries or grain face areas.

Any estimates of area fractions arising from this procedure are valid for an entire specimen only if they fulll the requirements of 8. If additional traverses can be made, they will improve the precision of the nal area fraction estimate. Precision and Bias 9. An example of such a plot is shown in Fig. Users e11881 set calibration, choose preparation options and set the desired measurement method.

This comparison chart is shown in Fig.

The grid should consist of equally spaced points formed by the intersection of ne lines. For the ne grain, the total intercept length