Esterification of free fatty acids using water-tolerable Amberlyst as a of heterogeneous acid catalysts, Amberlyst 15 and Amberlyst BD The grant supports Rohm and Haas’s development of a newly commercial polymeric catalyst technology, AMBERLYST™ BD20 specialty. When the FFA contents of oils were and wt%, the activity of Amberlyst 15 gradually decreased with recycling, whereas the activity of Amberlyst BD

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The method of claim 1wherein said homogenous catalyst comprises one of methanesulfonic acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, and p-toluene sulfonic acid. In one embodiment, method in FIG. The apparatus, devices, systems, and methods of the present invention will now be described in detail by reference to various non-limiting embodiments, including the figures which are exemplary only.

In some embodiments of the invention, nonexclusive examples of feedstock are fats and oils including coconut oil, palm oils, palm kernel oil, cottonseed oil, rapeseed oil, peanut oil, olive oil, linseed oil, babassu oil, tea bd200, Chinese tallow oil, olive kernel oil, meadowfoam oil, chaulmoorgra oil, coriander oil, canola oil, soybean oil, camelina oil, castor oil, pennycress oil, lard oil, jatropha oil, sunflower oil, algae oils, corn oil, used cooking oils, bacon grease, choice white grease, yellow grease, brown grease, poultry fat, beef tallow, lard, and fish oils.

The flowrates provide a liquid hourly space velocity of qmberlyst. In one embodiment, the alcohol described in the invention is dry methanol. The drawings are not to scale and amberkyst exemplary configurations that depict general principles of the technology which amberlyat not meant to limit the scope of the invention.

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These feedstocks may or may not have been pretreated using means understood by one skilled in the art to remove impurities. One such esterification process converts free fatty acids to FAAEs with alcohols using homogenous catalysis catalyst and reactants have the same phase.

The method of claim 22further comprising the step of reacting the second stream in a second reactor with at least one of additional homogeneous catalyst, additional heterogeneous catalyst, and additional alcohol to form a second reaction mixture. US USA1 en After a prescribed residence time the reaction mixture exits the reactor having reduced free fatty acids compared to the feedstock entering the reactor.

Potential causes of this steady deactivation include catalyst fouling and deactivation by proteins, phospholipids, metal ions, neutralization, chemical compounds i. The present invention generally relates to converting carboxylic acids into esters by esterification with alcohols in the presence of dual catalysts.


A review of biodiesel production by integrated reactive separation technologies. The FFA esterification reaction is affected by temperature, molar ratio of alcohol to FFA, mass transfer limitations, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and reaction stoichiometry. The final average FFA content of the dry reaction mixture was The final average FFA content of the dry reaction mixture was 0. A first reaction mixture 3 containing lower quantities of carboxylic acid than the feedstock 1 exits unit and enters a reactor containing heterogeneous catalyst.

The reactor contains a predetermined amount of heterogeneous catalyst. In any embodiment, dry reaction mixture 12 may continue to a transesterification, hydrogenation or other catalytic chemical conversion process, alcohol may be recovered from stream 11 and a portion of homogenous catalyst may be recovered from either stream 11 or The advantages of the technology described may be better understood by referring to the descriptions below with the accompanying drawings.

Continuous method for the heterogenically catalyzed esterification of fatty acids. The present invention may be practiced by implementing process steps in different orders than as specifically set forth herein. The regeneration may be performed in multiple steps with different acid concentrations and residence times in each step. Conversion of hemicellulose to furfural and levulinic acid using biphasic reactors with alkylphenol solvents.

AMBERLYST™ BD20 – KDY Holdings

However, other bbd20 catalysts may be used including sulfuric or phosphoric acid. Where methods and steps described above indicate certain events occurring in certain order, those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the ordering of certain steps may be modified and that such modifications are in qmberlyst with the principles of the invention.

In one embodiment the first reaction mixture 3 is washed with water before entering a decanter The calculated molar ratio of methanol to free fatty acid was The reactor maberlyst be sized to provide sufficient residence time for the carboxylic acid contained in the feedstock 1 to be converted sufficiently to esters.

The reactor may be oriented either horizontally or vertically. The method of claim 1wherein said reactor is a fixed bed reactor. The use of acids, niobium oxide, and zeolite catalysts for esterification reactions.

The invention converts free fatty acids into esters by esterification with alcohol and a dual catalyst such that the reaction mixture contains sufficiently low free fatty acids and the amount of free fatty acids in the product stream leaving the process remains stable over time.


The method of claim 19further comprising the step of ambetlyst the second reaction mixture in one of a transesterification process and a hydrotreating process.

Purification technologies for crude biodiesel obtained by alkali-catalyzed transesterification. In addition to the direct activity of the homogeneous catalyst, it is believed that a portion of the homogeneous catalyst prevents the contaminants from binding to the heterogeneous catalyst and thereby prevents fouling or deactivation of the heterogeneous catalyst. Method of preparing fatty acid alkyl esters from waste or recycled fatty acid stock. Homogenous catalysis provides excellent selectivity and activity.

In one embodiment, the homogenous catalyst described in the invention is methanesulfonic acid MSA. The method of claim 25further comprising the step of processing the second reaction mixture in one of a transesterification process and a hydrotreating process.

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Fatty acid distillate with a free fatty acid content of The method of claim 27wherein at least one of additional alcohol and additional homogenous catalyst is added to said second reactor. The second reaction mixture 5 enters unit which may be a decanter, centrifuge, flash evaporator, flash drum, vacuum distillation column, or other similar separation unit.

Continuous production of biodiesel from high acid value oils in microstructured reactor by acid-catalyzed reactions. In yet another embodiment, the residence time is between 10 and 60 minutes. Additionally, certain steps may be performed concurrently in a parallel process when possible, as well as performed sequentially.

Since the fouling and deactivation phenomenon occurs gradually and is dependent on feedstock contaminant concentration, sufficient time is needed to observe increasing product FFA trends. It may amverlyst a continuously-stirred tank, plug-flow, tubular-flow, mixed-flow, fixed bed, fluidized bed, batch, semi-batch, recirculating, or other reactor type. In one embodiment, feedstock containing carboxylic acid 1 and also containing homogenous catalyst and alcohol 2 is introduced to the reactor A continuous process for the preparation of esters of aliphatic carboxylic acids.

The calculated molar ratio of methanol to free fatty acids was 8. Approximately g of feedstock was fed over Approximately g of feedstock was fed over 6.

Pressure is generally maintained at a constant level throughout the reaction.